How to create a new disk partition in Linux

Storage devices (such as hard drives or USB drives) need to be structured before they can be used. Partitioning is the process of cutting a disk into a separate area called a partition. Most importantly, a partition is required to install the operating system. The second common reason is that you can install multiple operating systems.

Basically, this is the first step of installing a new disk. After the partition is created, the partition will be formatted using the file system.

In this tutorial, I will introduce step by step how to create a new partition on Linux distributions such as CentOS, Ubuntu, RHEL, and Debian.

1) List the partitions in Linux

To list existing partitions or blocked devices on the system, you can use parted -l Either fdisk -l Either lsblk command. From this list, you can determine which disk to partition. Disks connected from storage devices (SANS) are usually visible in cat /proc/scsi/scsi Either /proc/partitions file.

$ sudo parted -l

Partition command lists disks

you can see unrecognized disk label Errors indicate new and unpartitioned disks.

$ sudo fdisk -l

fdisk list disk

$ sudo lsblk

lsblk command lists block devices

Our system has two disks, the first disk /dev/xvda The operating system is installed, the second is /dev/xvdb.

2) Disk partition in Linux

In this section, we will use the entire disk to create a partition. Fdisk and parted are two tools used to create disk partitions in Linux. fdisk does not support the creation of partitions larger than 2 TB.

Here, we will check how to use the parted tool to create partitions.

Set partition type

The two most common partition types are MBR (msdos) and GPT. GPT uses more modern standards, and many operating systems support MBR.

If you have no special requirements, you can choose the GPT standard.

$ sudo parted /dev/xvdb mklabel gpt
Output
[email protected]:~$ sudo parted /dev/xvdb mklabel gpt
Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

In addition to single-line commands, you can also run parted commands interactively. In the example, I changed the disk label to msdos This is the MBR format.

$ sudo parted /dev/xvdb
GNU Parted 3.2
Using /dev/xvdb
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) mklabel msdos
Warning: The existing disk label on /dev/xvdb will be destroyed and all data on this
disk will be lost. Do you want to continue?
Yes/No? Y
(parted)

Separate interactive creation of disk labels

For MBR type, run the following command:

$ sudo parted /dev/sda mklabel msdos

Create a new partition

Even if space has been allocated for the new partition and written to disk, you still need to create a file system on this new free space, so the next step is to format the partition with the required file system.

$ sudo parted -a opt /dev/xvdb mkpart primary ext4 0% 100%

If you check lsblk, You can see a new partition /dev/xvdb1 List:

List the new partition -lsblk

Note: Parted defaults to “1000 KB = 1 megabyte” instead of “1024 KB = 1 megabyte”.

If you run the parted command again to list the partitions, you will no longer see any errors:

List new partition-break up

To cut the entire disk into multiple partitions, run mkpart Specify the desired size as follows:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 0 1024MB
(parted) print

Create a partition with a specific size

You can add more partitions as needed, as follows:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 1024MB 2048MB
(parted) print
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvdb: 8590MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      17.4kB  1024MB  1024MB  ext4         primary
 2      1024MB  2048MB  1023MB  ext4         primary

Create more partitions

Therefore, we created two main partitions with the names shows xvdb1 with xvdb2.

Note: For the MBR scheme, you have a limit of 4 primary partitions, but there is no such limit in GPT.

You can also use the following parted command to list the partition information on the disk.

$ sudo parted /dev/xvdb print

Output:

Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvdb: 8590MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      17.4kB  1024MB  1024MB  ext4         primary
 2      1024MB  2048MB  1023MB  ext4         primary

Note: Type quit drop out parted Tip, any changes made will be saved.

3) Create a file system

Linux supports different file system types, such as Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, BtrFS and GlusterFS. In the previous section, we created two new partitions, and now we can format them as Ext4 file system.

Linux has a built-in utility called mkfs.ext4, You can format the partition as Ext4 file system.

$ sudo mkfs.ext4 -L databackup /dev/xvdb1

mkfs ext4 format partition

you can use it -L Option to set the partition label when formatting the partition.

Use the e2label command to change the partition label as follows:

$ sudo e2label /dev/xvdb2 storagedata

To print all partition table information, such as Name, FSTYPE, LABEL, UUID and MOUNTPOINT, please use lsblk --fs.

$ lsblk --fs
NAME    FSTYPE   LABEL           UUID                                 MOUNTPOINT
loop0   squashfs                                                      /snap/ssm-agent/1566
loop1   squashfs                                                      /snap/core/8935
xvda
└─xvda1 ext4     cloudimg-rootfs 6156ec80-9446-4eb1-95e0-9ae6b7a46187 /
xvdb
├─xvdb1 ext4     databackup      86d249af-ead2-41d4-9acd-296e36c63ec4
└─xvdb2 ext4     storagedata     beae745b-188f-41d2-a133-7c4212da0a34

4) Mount the file system

Finally, we will now mount the file system that can write data to the mount point.

The following command will temporarily mount the file system:

$ sudo mount -t auto defaults /dev/xvdb1 /mnt/data

It is important to ensure that the /etc/fstab file is updated so that the newly created partition is automatically mounted at boot time.

The fstab file should have any of the following entries:

LABEL=databackup /mnt/data ext4 defaults 0 2

Either

/dev/xvdb1 /mnt/data ext4 defaults 0 2

Note: SCSI devices are identified as “sd”, and the letter immediately after “sd” indicates the order in which the device was first found. For example, sda1 represents the first partition on the first drive. To illustrate, I used a Xen virtual disk, which shows the device as “/dev/xvd”.

To verify that the file system is available, use the df command to list the mounted partitions and view their size.

$ df -h -x tmpfs -x devtmpfs -x squashfs

df -h command list mount point

in conclusion

In this tutorial, we learned how to partition, format and mount a raw hard drive connected to a Linux system.

If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to comment.

Related Read: How to Create Swap File (Partition) on Linux
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