How to set up an NFS server on CentOS 6.5

This tutorial describes how to install and configure an NFS server, and how to share files between an NFS server and clients. We have tested these steps on CentOS 6.5 32-bit, but will work on RHEL / Scientific Linux 6.x.

scenario

NFS server operating system: CentOS 6.5 32-bit (minimal server installation)
NFS client operating system: CentOS 6.5 32-bit (minimal desktop installation)
NFS server IP address: 192.168.1.200/24
NFS client IP address: 192.168.1.29/24

1. Install NFS on the server

[[email protected] ~]# yum install nfs* -y

2. Start the NFS service

[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs start
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Stopping RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig nfs on

3. Install NFS on the client

[[email protected] client]# yum install nfs* -y

4. Start the NFS service on the client

[[email protected] client]# /etc/init.d/nfs start
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS quotas:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Stopping RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]
[[email protected] client]# chkconfig nfs on

5. Create a shared directory on the server

Create a shared directory “/ home / ostechnix” on the server so that client users can read and write files in the “home / ostechnix” directory.

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir /home/ostechnix
[[email protected] ~]# chmod 755 /home/ostechnix/

6. Export the shared directory on the server

Open the / etc / exports file and add an entry as follows

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/exports
/home/ostechnix 192.168.1.0/24(rw,sync,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)

Where,
/ home / ostechnix – shared directory
192.168.1.0/24 – IP address range of clients accessing the shared folder
rw – make the shared folder writable
sync
no_root_squash – enable root privileges (users can read, write, and delete files in shared directories)
no_all_squash – enable user privileges

Restart the NFS service.

[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs restart
Shutting down NFS daemon:                                  [  OK  ]
Shutting down NFS mountd:                                  [  OK  ]
Shutting down NFS services:                                [  OK  ]
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Stopping RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]       -

7. Mount the shared directory on the client

Create a mount point to mount the server’s shared directory.

To do so, create a directory called “/ nfs / shared” (you can create your own mount point)

[[email protected] client]# mkdir -p /nfs/shared

Next, mount the shared directory from the server as shown below

[[email protected] client]# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.200:/home/ostechnix/ /nfs/shared/

This will take some time and you will see a connection timeout error. Don’t panic. firwall may restrict clients from mounting shares from the server. You can stop iptables to fix the problem, or allow the NFS service port through iptables.

To do this, open the / etc / sysconfig / nfs file and uncomment the lines marked in bold.

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/nfs
#
# Define which protocol versions mountd 
# will advertise. The values are "no" or "yes"
# with yes being the default
#MOUNTD_NFS_V2="no"
#MOUNTD_NFS_V3="no"
#
#
# Path to remote quota server. See rquotad(8)
#RQUOTAD="/usr/sbin/rpc.rquotad"
# Port rquotad should listen on.
RQUOTAD_PORT=875
# Optinal options passed to rquotad
#RPCRQUOTADOPTS=""
#
#
# Optional arguments passed to in-kernel lockd
#LOCKDARG=
# TCP port rpc.lockd should listen on.
LOCKD_TCPPORT=32803
# UDP port rpc.lockd should listen on.
LOCKD_UDPPORT=32769
#
#
# Optional arguments passed to rpc.nfsd. See rpc.nfsd(8)
# Turn off v2 and v3 protocol support
#RPCNFSDARGS="-N 2 -N 3"
# Turn off v4 protocol support
#RPCNFSDARGS="-N 4"
# Number of nfs server processes to be started.
# The default is 8. 
#RPCNFSDCOUNT=8
# Stop the nfsd module from being pre-loaded
#NFSD_MODULE="noload"
# Set V4 grace period in seconds
#NFSD_V4_GRACE=90
#
#
#
# Optional arguments passed to rpc.mountd. See rpc.mountd(8)
#RPCMOUNTDOPTS=""
# Port rpc.mountd should listen on.
MOUNTD_PORT=892
#
#
# Optional arguments passed to rpc.statd. See rpc.statd(8)
#STATDARG=""
# Port rpc.statd should listen on.
STATD_PORT=662
# Outgoing port statd should used. The default is port
# is random
STATD_OUTGOING_PORT=2020
# Specify callout program 
#STATD_HA_CALLOUT="/usr/local/bin/foo"
#
#
# Optional arguments passed to rpc.idmapd. See rpc.idmapd(8)
#RPCIDMAPDARGS=""
#
# Set to turn on Secure NFS mounts. 
#SECURE_NFS="yes"
# Optional arguments passed to rpc.gssd. See rpc.gssd(8)
#RPCGSSDARGS=""
# Optional arguments passed to rpc.svcgssd. See rpc.svcgssd(8)
#RPCSVCGSSDARGS=""
#
# To enable RDMA support on the server by setting this to
# the port the server should listen on
#RDMA_PORT=20049

Restart the NFS service

[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs restart
Shutting down NFS daemon:                                  [  OK  ]
Shutting down NFS mountd:                                  [  OK  ]
Shutting down NFS services:                                [  OK  ]
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Stopping RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]

Add the lines shown in bold to the bold ‘/ etc / sysconfig / iptables’ file.

[[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables
# Firewall configuration written by system-config-firewall
# Manual customization of this file is not recommended.
*filter
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 32769 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 32803 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 892 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 892 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 875 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 875 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 662 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 662 -j ACCEPT
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
-A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
COMMIT

Then restart the iptables service

[[email protected] ~]# service iptables restart
iptables: Flushing firewall rules:                         [  OK  ]
iptables: Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter          [  OK  ]
iptables: Unloading modules:                               [  OK  ]
iptables: Applying firewall rules:                         [  OK  ]

Mount the share from the client again

[[email protected] client]# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.200:/home/ostechnix/ /nfs/shared/

Finally, the NFS share is mounted without connection timeout errors.

To determine if a shared directory is mounted, enter the mount command on the client system.

[[email protected] client]# mount
/dev/mapper/vg_vpn-lv_root on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
nfsd on /proc/fs/nfsd type nfsd (rw)
192.168.1.200:/home/ostechnix/ on /nfs/shared type nfs (rw,vers=4,addr=192.168.1.200,clientaddr=192.168.1.29)

8. NFS testing

Now create some files or folders in the “/ nfs / shared” directory mounted in the previous step.

[[email protected] shared]# mkdir test
[[email protected] shared]# touch file1 file2 file3

Go to the server and go to the “/ home / ostechnix” directory.

[[email protected] ~]# cd /home/ostechnix/
[[email protected] ostechnix]# ls
file1  file2  file3  test
[[email protected] ostechnix]#

This will list the files and directories created by the client. You can also share files from server to client or vice versa.

9. Auto mount share

If you want the share to be automatically shared instead of manually mounted on each reboot, add the following line, shown in bold, to the / etc / fstab file on the client system:

[[email protected] client]# vi /etc/fstab 
#
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Wed Feb 27 15:35:14 2013
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info
#
/dev/mapper/vg_vpn-lv_root /                       ext4    defaults        1 1
UUID=59411b1a-d116-4e52-9382-51ff6e252cfb /boot                   ext4    defaults        1 2
/dev/mapper/vg_vpn-lv_swap swap                    swap    defaults        0 0
tmpfs                   /dev/shm                tmpfs   defaults        0 0
devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts  gid=5,mode=620  0 0
sysfs                   /sys                    sysfs   defaults        0 0
proc                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0
192.168.1.200:/home/ostechnix/nfs/sharednfsrw,sync,hard,intr0 0

10. Confirm sharing

Restart the client system and see if the share mounts automatically.

[[email protected] client]# mount
/dev/mapper/vg_vpn-lv_root on / type ext4 (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,rootcontext="system_u:object_r:tmpfs_t:s0")
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw)
none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
192.168.1.200:/home/ostechnix on /nfs/shared type nfs (rw,sync,hard,intr,vers=4,addr=192.168.1.200,clientaddr=192.168.1.29)
nfsd on /proc/fs/nfsd type nfsd (rw)

that’s it. have a good day! !
.

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