Let’s encrypt SSL certificate to protect Zimbra server

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This guide will show you how to use Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate to easily protect Zimbra Mail Server. The default installation of Zimbra is the mail service – POP3/IMAP/SMTP over TLS and HTTPS access to the Zimbra console service generates a self-signed SSL certificate.

Self-signed certificates can be used for test deployments, but for production settings, I recommend that you obtain commercial certificates to improve business reputation and better security. If you do not have the budget to establish a CA certificate, you can use a free “encryption certificate” to protect your Zimbra server.

Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated and open certification authority provided by the non-profit Internet Security Research Group (ISRG). The certificate generation process is automated and suitable for developers. Before following this guide, make sure you have a Zimbra server running. The following guide can help you.

To install Zimbra server on RHEL 8 | CentOS 8

Install Zimbra Server on Ubuntu

Step 1: Install the certbot-auto tool

We will use the certbot-auto tool to request “Let’s encrypt SSL certificate”. The tool is not installed on the system by default, but it can be easily downloaded and installed. of certbot-auto The wrapper script will install Certbot, obtain certain dependencies from the web server operating system, and place other dependencies in the python virtual environment.

wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto

Make the script executable.

chmod +x certbot-auto

Move the script to a directory in PATH.

sudo mv certbot-auto /usr/local/bin

Confirm that it is working properly.

$ sudo certbot-auto --version
certbot 1.5.0

If prompted to install dependencies, please accept.

Step 2: Stop the Zimbra proxy service

We need to stop the jetty or nginx service before we can configure it to use the “Let’s Encrypt SSL” certificate.

$ sudo su - zimbra -c "zmproxyctl stop"
Stopping proxy...done.

$ sudo su - zimbra -c "zmmailboxdctl stop"
Stopping mailboxd...done.

Step 3: Obtain “Encrypted SSL Certificate”

After the Zimbra proxy and mailbox services are stopped, we can continue to request “encryption” in automatic mode. Make sure to pass on all host names used by the mail server.

# export EMAIL="[email protected]"
# certbot-auto certonly --standalone 
  -d mail.computingforgeeks.com 
  --preferred-challenges http 
  --agree-tos 
  -n 
  -m $EMAIL 
  --keep-until-expiring
  

When you run the command, you will see the following output.

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer None
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for mail.computingforgeeks.com
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.computingforgeeks.com/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.computingforgeeks.com/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2020-10-03. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot-auto
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot-auto renew"
 - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
   configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
   secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
   also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
   making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

You can find all files below / etc / letsencrypt / live / $ domain

$ ls -lh /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.computingforgeeks.com
total 4.0K
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  50 Jul  5 23:42 cert.pem -> ../../archive/mail.computingforgeeks.com/cert1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  51 Jul  5 23:42 chain.pem -> ../../archive/mail.computingforgeeks.com/chain1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  55 Jul  5 23:42 fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/mail.computingforgeeks.com/fullchain1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  53 Jul  5 23:42 privkey.pem -> ../../archive/mail.computingforgeeks.com/privkey1.pem
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 692 Jul  5 23:42 README

You will see many files.

  • certificate: Actual certificate file
  • chain: Chain file
  • Full chain: Cascade of cert.pem + chain.pem
  • privkey.pem: Private key

Step 4: Use “Encrypted SSL Certificate” to protect Zimbra Mail Server

Create a directory that will contain “Let’s encrypt the Zimbra server’s certificate”.

sudo mkdir /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt

Copy the certificate file.

CERTPATH=/etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.computingforgeeks.com
sudo cp  $CERTPATH/* /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/

Confirm successful file copy.

$ ls /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/
cert.pem  chain.pem  fullchain.pem  privkey.pem  README

Now, we need to build the appropriate intermediate CA and root CA. You must use the IdenTrust root certificate and merge it after chain.pem.

cat $CERTPATH/chain.pem | sudo tee /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem

View the contents of the file:

$ cat /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIEkjCCA3qgAwIBAgIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADA/
MSQwIgYDVQQKExtEaWdpdGFsIFNpZ25hdHVyZSBUcnVzdCBDby4xFzAVBgNVBAMT
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GkxldCdzIEVuY3J5cHQgQXV0aG9yaXR5IFgzMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOC
AQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAnNMM8FrlLke3cl03g7NoYzDq1zUmGSXhvb418XCSL7e4S0EF
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PfZ+G6Z6h7mjem0Y+iWlkYcV4PIWL1iwBi8saCbGS5jN2p8M+X+Q7UNKEkROb3N6
KOqkqm57TH2H3eDJAkSnh6/DNFu0Qg==
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Combine chain.pem with root CA-order chain prior to Root CA.

sudo tee -a /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem<

Confirm that the generated file has two certificates.

$ cat /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIEkjCCA3qgAwIBAgIQCgFBQgAAAVOFc2oLheynCDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADA/
MSQwIgYDVQQKExtEaWdpdGFsIFNpZ25hdHVyZSBUcnVzdCBDby4xFzAVBgNVBAMT
DkRTVCBSb290IENBIFgzMB4XDTE2MDMxNzE2NDA0NloXDTIxMDMxNzE2NDA0Nlow
SjELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxFjAUBgNVBAoTDUxldCdzIEVuY3J5cHQxIzAhBgNVBAMT
GkxldCdzIEVuY3J5cHQgQXV0aG9yaXR5IFgzMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOC
AQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAnNMM8FrlLke3cl03g7NoYzDq1zUmGSXhvb418XCSL7e4S0EF
q6meNQhY7LEqxGiHC6PjdeTm86dicbp5gWAf15Gan/PQeGdxyGkOlZHP/uaZ6WA8
SMx+yk13EiSdRxta67nsHjcAHJyse6cF6s5K671B5TaYucv9bTyWaN8jKkKQDIZ0
Z8h/pZq4UmEUEz9l6YKHy9v6Dlb2honzhT+Xhq+w3Brvaw2VFn3EK6BlspkENnWA
a6xK8xuQSXgvopZPKiAlKQTGdMDQMc2PMTiVFrqoM7hD8bEfwzB/onkxEz0tNvjj
/PIzark5McWvxI0NHWQWM6r6hCm21AvA2H3DkwIDAQABo4IBfTCCAXkwEgYDVR0T
AQH/BAgwBgEB/wIBADAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAYYwfwYIKwYBBQUHAQEEczBxMDIG
CCsGAQUFBzABhiZodHRwOi8vaXNyZy50cnVzdGlkLm9jc3AuaWRlbnRydXN0LmNv
bTA7BggrBgEFBQcwAoYvaHR0cDovL2FwcHMuaWRlbnRydXN0LmNvbS9yb290cy9k
c3Ryb290Y2F4My5wN2MwHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUxKexpHsscfrb4UuQdf/EFWCFiRAw
VAYDVR0gBE0wSzAIBgZngQwBAgEwPwYLKwYBBAGC3xMBAQEwMDAuBggrBgEFBQcC
ARYiaHR0cDovL2Nwcy5yb290LXgxLmxldHNlbmNyeXB0Lm9yZzA8BgNVHR8ENTAz
MDGgL6AthitodHRwOi8vY3JsLmlkZW50cnVzdC5jb20vRFNUUk9PVENBWDNDUkwu
Y3JsMB0GA1UdDgQWBBSoSmpjBH3duubRObemRWXv86jsoTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsF
AAOCAQEA3TPXEfNjWDjdGBX7CVW+dla5cEilaUcne8IkCJLxWh9KEik3JHRRHGJo
uM2VcGfl96S8TihRzZvoroed6ti6WqEBmtzw3Wodatg+VyOeph4EYpr/1wXKtx8/
wApIvJSwtmVi4MFU5aMqrSDE6ea73Mj2tcMyo5jMd6jmeWUHK8so/joWUoHOUgwu
X4Po1QYz+3dszkDqMp4fklxBwXRsW10KXzPMTZ+sOPAveyxindmjkW8lGy+QsRlG
PfZ+G6Z6h7mjem0Y+iWlkYcV4PIWL1iwBi8saCbGS5jN2p8M+X+Q7UNKEkROb3N6
KOqkqm57TH2H3eDJAkSnh6/DNFu0Qg==
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIDSjCCAjKgAwIBAgIQRK+wgNajJ7qJMDmGLvhAazANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADA/
MSQwIgYDVQQKExtEaWdpdGFsIFNpZ25hdHVyZSBUcnVzdCBDby4xFzAVBgNVBAMT
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Ob8VZRzI9neWagqNdwvYkQsEjgfbKbYK7p2CNTUQ
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Set the correct permissions for the directory:

sudo chown -R zimbra:zimbra /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/

Confirm that the owner is a zimbra user.

$ ls -lha /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/
total 32K
drwxr-xr-x. 2 zimbra zimbra 4.0K Jul  6 00:18 .
drwxr-xr-x. 8 zimbra zimbra 4.0K Jul  6 00:13 ..
-rw-r--r--. 1 zimbra zimbra 1.9K Jul  6 00:14 cert.pem
-rw-r--r--. 1 zimbra zimbra 1.7K Jul  6 00:14 chain.pem
-rw-r--r--. 1 zimbra zimbra 3.6K Jul  6 00:14 fullchain.pem
-rw-------. 1 zimbra zimbra 1.7K Jul  6 00:14 privkey.pem
-rw-r--r--. 1 zimbra zimbra  692 Jul  6 00:14 README
-rw-r--r--. 1 zimbra zimbra 2.8K Jul  6 00:23 zimbra_chain.pem

Verify your business certificate.

sudo su - zimbra -c '/opt/zimbra/bin/zmcertmgr verifycrt comm /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/privkey.pem /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem'

The output should not give any errors or mismatches.

** Verifying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' against '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/privkey.pem'
Certificate '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' and private key '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/privkey.pem' match.
** Verifying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' against '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem'
Valid certificate chain: /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem: OK

Back up the current certificate file.

sudo cp -a /opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra /opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra.$(date "+%Y%.m%.d-%H.%M")

Copy the private key to the Zimbra SSL path.

sudo cp /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/privkey.pem /opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key
sudo chown zimbra:zimbra /opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key

Finally, deploy a new Let's Encrypt SSL certificate.

sudo su - zimbra -c '/opt/zimbra/bin/zmcertmgr deploycrt comm /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem'

My certificate deployment output is shown below.

** Verifying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' against '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key'
Certificate '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' and private key '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key' match.
** Verifying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' against '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem'
Valid certificate chain: /opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem: OK
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/cert.pem' to '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.crt'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem' to '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial_ca.crt'
** Appending ca chain '/opt/zimbra/ssl/letsencrypt/zimbra_chain.pem' to '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.crt'
** Importing cert '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial_ca.crt' as 'zcs-user-commercial_ca' into cacerts '/opt/zimbra/common/lib/jvm/java/lib/security/cacerts'
** NOTE: restart mailboxd to use the imported certificate.
** Saving config key 'zimbraSSLCertificate' via zmprov modifyServer mail.computingforgeeks.com...ok
** Saving config key 'zimbraSSLPrivateKey' via zmprov modifyServer mail.computingforgeeks.com...ok
** Installing imapd certificate '/opt/zimbra/conf/imapd.crt' and key '/opt/zimbra/conf/imapd.key'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.crt' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/imapd.crt'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/imapd.key'
** Creating file '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/jetty.pkcs12'
** Creating keystore '/opt/zimbra/conf/imapd.keystore'
** Installing ldap certificate '/opt/zimbra/conf/slapd.crt' and key '/opt/zimbra/conf/slapd.key'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.crt' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/slapd.crt'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/slapd.key'
** Creating file '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/jetty.pkcs12'
** Creating keystore '/opt/zimbra/mailboxd/etc/keystore'
** Installing mta certificate '/opt/zimbra/conf/smtpd.crt' and key '/opt/zimbra/conf/smtpd.key'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.crt' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/smtpd.crt'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/smtpd.key'
** Installing proxy certificate '/opt/zimbra/conf/nginx.crt' and key '/opt/zimbra/conf/nginx.key'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.crt' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/nginx.crt'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/commercial/commercial.key' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/nginx.key'
** NOTE: restart services to use the new certificates.
** Cleaning up 3 files from '/opt/zimbra/conf/ca'
** Removing /opt/zimbra/conf/ca/ca.key
** Removing /opt/zimbra/conf/ca/6703d76b.0
** Removing /opt/zimbra/conf/ca/ca.pem
** Copying CA to /opt/zimbra/conf/ca
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/ca/ca.key' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/ca/ca.key'
** Copying '/opt/zimbra/ssl/zimbra/ca/ca.pem' to '/opt/zimbra/conf/ca/ca.pem'
** Creating CA hash symlink '6703d76b.0' -> 'ca.pem'
** Creating /opt/zimbra/conf/ca/commercial_ca_1.crt
** Creating CA hash symlink '4f06f81d.0' -> 'commercial_ca_1.crt'
** Creating /opt/zimbra/conf/ca/commercial_ca_2.crt
** Creating CA hash symlink '2e5ac55d.0' -> 'commercial_ca_2.crt'

Restart Nginx or previously stopped dock services.

$ sudo su - zimbra -c "zmcontrol restart"

Host mail.computingforgeeks.com
	Stopping zmconfigd...Done.
	Stopping zimlet webapp...Done.
	Stopping zimbraAdmin webapp...Done.
	Stopping zimbra webapp...Done.
	Stopping service webapp...Done.
	Stopping stats...Done.
	Stopping mta...Done.
	Stopping spell...Done.
	Stopping snmp...Done.
	Stopping cbpolicyd...Done.
	Stopping archiving...Done.
	Stopping opendkim...Done.
	Stopping amavis...Done.
	Stopping antivirus...Done.
	Stopping antispam...Done.
	Stopping proxy...Done.
	Stopping memcached...Done.
	Stopping mailbox...Done.
	Stopping logger...Done.
	Stopping dnscache...Done.
	Stopping ldap...Done.
Host mail.computingforgeeks.com
	Starting ldap...Done.
	Starting zmconfigd...Done.
	Starting dnscache...Done.
	Starting logger...Done.
	Starting mailbox...Done.
	Starting memcached...Done.
	Starting proxy...Done.
	Starting amavis...Done.
	Starting antispam...Done.
	Starting antivirus...Done.
	Starting opendkim...Done.
	Starting snmp...Done.
	Starting spell...Done.
	Starting mta...Done.
	Starting stats...Done.
	Starting service webapp...Done.
	Starting zimbra webapp...Done.
	Starting zimbraAdmin webapp...Done.
	Starting zimlet webapp...Done.

Step 5: Test Let's encrypt SSL certificate on Zimbra Mail Server

Open the management or Webmail console of the Zimbra collaboration server, and then check the certificate details.

You can now use the "Let's Encrypt SSL" certificate on the Zimbra server. To renew, follow the steps below.

  • Stop Zimbra service
  • Renew our encrypted SSL certificate
  • Then follow the steps below Step 4

Other Zimbra guides:

How to restore Zimbra LDAP database from backup

How to solve the problem that Zimbra zmconfigd cannot run/start

How to configure Microsoft Outlook for Zimbra

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