Partition commands to manage disk partitions

Parted is a free GNU utility for managing hard disk partitions from the command line. It can create, delete, resize and print disk partitions on Linux.

Generally, we use partitioning tools to partition disks to run multiple OSs, allocate specific system space, and separate valuable files or extended volumes.

Traditionally, many users use the fdisk tool to partition, which is the main reason for using parted when the disk size is greater than 2TB. Initially, only GPT was supported. Starting from util-linux 2.23, fdisk also supports GPT.

In this tutorial, I will show how to use the parted command for disk management in Linux

Install Parted on Linux

By default, Parted is installed in most modern Linux distributions. If it is not included in your distribution, install parted manually.

Partial installation on Ubuntu and Debian style distributions:

$ sudo apt-get install parted

Install separately on CentOS and RHEL:

$ sudo yum install parted

When you run the parted command without any options, it will print the version of the parted package, select the first drive by default, and wait for other commands when prompted. Parted commands must be run as the root user or a user with Sudo access.

$ sudo parted
GNU Parted 3.2
Using /dev/xvda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted)

Types of quit Exit from the separate prompt.

important: After typing the command, all changes will be made to the disk.

List disk partitions

Let’s check how to print all disk information and its partition. By default, parted selects the first drive. To print all disk partitions, enter print all.

Note: The warning displayed in the output is because the disk has unallocated disk space yet to be provisioned.

[email protected]:~$ sudo parted
GNU Parted 3.2
Using /dev/xvda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
                                                                       (parted) print all
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvda: 8590MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      1049kB  8590MB  8589MB  primary  ext4         boot

Warning: Not all of the space available to /dev/xvdb appears to be
used, you can fix the GPT to use all of the space (an extra 25165824
blocks) or continue with the current setting?
                                                                                                                                              Fix/Ignore? Ignore
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvdb: 21.5GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      17.4kB  1024MB  1024MB  ext4         primary
 2      1024MB  2048MB  1023MB  ext4         primary
(parted)

Instead, you can use a single command:

$ sudo parted /dev/xvda print all

If there are multiple disks, you can use the select command to choose between the disks:

Partition selection disk

Separate-select disk

Find unallocated space on disk

To find the unallocated space, select the disk and run print free command.

Use parted to find unallocated disk space

Later, we will discuss how to use the resizepart command to expand the partition when there is more unallocated disk space.

Use parted to create a new disk partition

Usually, the operating system is installed on the first disk /dev/sda. When adding a new disk, the operating system will select the next number as /dev/sdb. To illustrate that I am using a Xen virtual disk, the virtual disk uses the naming convention as /dev/xvd.

I added a new 20GB disk, you can see unrecognised disk label.

Use parted to display the new disk

The first step is to set the required disk labels. The supported disk labels are bsd, loop, gpt, mac, msdos, pc98 and sun.

(parted) mklabel msdos

Now, I divide /dev/xvdb into two main partitions, the first partition is 10GB and the second partition is 5GB.

To create a new partition, we use mkpart Commands to start 0 and end 10000:

Use parted to create a new partition

To create the second partition, run the mkpart command again, specifying the start and end sizes

Create a second partition

Note: The “main” concept is reflected in the MBR, GPT does not care, but the name must still be added.

You can also use mkpart to create a partition across the entire drive by specifying the percentage to use (here 0% to 100%).

E.g:

$ sudo parted -a opt /dev/sda mkpart primary ext4 0% 100%

In addition to using the print command, you can also run other commands, such as lsblk, fdisk -l to see partitions created.

$ lsblk
NAME    MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0     7:0    0   18M  1 loop /snap/amazon-ssm-agent/1566
loop1     7:1    0 93.8M  1 loop /snap/core/8935
loop2     7:2    0 93.9M  1 loop /snap/core/9066
xvda    202:0    0    8G  0 disk
└─xvda1 202:1    0    8G  0 part /
xvdb    202:16   0   20G  0 disk
├─xvdb1 202:17   0  9.3G  0 part
└─xvdb2 202:18   0  4.7G  0 part
$

Now we can use the ex4 file system to format the partition (/dev/xvdb1), using mkfs.ext4 as follows:

$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1

Use resizepart to adjust the size of the disk partition

To expand a partition, you must first adjust its size. Simple resizing means moving the end of the partition.

Here, I will resize the second partition of /dev/xvdb and move the end position to 20000:

(parted) resizepart

Adjustment section

Note: growpart is another convenient tool for extending partitions on Linux.

To adjust the size of each file system to the new capacity, you must run file system-specific commands. Using extended file system in Linux resize2fs The command is as follows:

$ sudo resize2fs /dev/xvdb2
resize2fs 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018)
Resizing the filesystem on /dev/xvdb2 to 2441340 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/xvdb2 is now 2441340 (4k) blocks long.

Delete partition from selected disk

To delete a partition, you should know the partition number on the disk. Adopt print Partially displays all partitions and their corresponding numbers.

To delete, you can use the rm command, followed by the partition number. Here we want to delete the second partition as follows:

(parted) rm 2

Delete partition

Set a flag on the partition

Parted allows setting flags on partitions. Don’t worry about certain logos depending on the disk label. The sign can be on or off. The most common signs are boot, laboratory, exchange, raid, LVM, etc.

The following command sets the LVM flag on partition 2:

(Separately) set 2 LVM in

Another practical example when you need to set up a boot partition:

(parted) set 2 boot on

Rescue Linux disk partition

When you accidentally delete a partition, rescue will help. The lost partition can be recovered by locating between the beginning and the end.

Let’s delete partition 1 on /dev/xvdb and restore it using rescue command:

(parted) rescue

Rescue command

Set default unit

The “Units” command in the division helps to set the default units to show capacity and location. Supported units are:

KiB- kibibyte 
MiB - mebibyte
GiB - gibibyte
TiB - tebibyte
kB - kilobyte
MB - megabyte
GB - gigabyte
TB - terabyte
% - percentage of the device
cyl - cylinders
chs - cylinders, heads, sectors addressing
compact - Use human-readable representation for output

The following command sets the unit to compact:

(parted) unit compact
(parted) print
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvda: 8590MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      1049kB  8590MB  8589MB  primary  ext4         boot
(parted)

You can also print in the following units:

(parted) unit GB print
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvda: 8.59GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      0.00GB  8.59GB  8.59GB  primary  ext4         boot

(parted)

in conclusion

When updating this tutorial, we are using version 3.1, which is suitable for verifying the currently supported commands -h Options. Parted is written directly to disk, so you should be very careful when running any commands.

When making any changes, make sure to select the correct drive, otherwise data may be lost.

If you have any questions or thoughts on this topic, please use the comments section below.

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