The main things to do after taking full advantage of Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) has been released, so I prepared a list of important tasks after installation.
Whether you are a newbie to Ubuntu or a long-term user, please use this important list after installing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS to help you with most of the settings so that you can use the new Ubuntu 20.04 LTS desktop and customize it To meet your needs, I obviously don’t know what every user will do after a fresh Ubuntu installation, so this list contains things that I think will be beneficial to others. Use adjustments that are useful for your use case.

Enhance your GNOME desktop in Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

1. GNOME adjustments

GNOME adjustment

GNOME Tweaks is an essential tool for all GNOME Shell users. I can access other settings, such as changing GTK, icons and Shell themes, enabling or disabling GNOME Shell extensions, changing fonts, disabling mouse acceleration (set it to “flat” in “Adjustments”), disabling the touchpad while typing, Add start application, adjust top bar, window title bar, window and workspace.
Install Tweaks by clicking this button or using the following command:

sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

To change the GNOME Shell theme, you need to install User themes extension. This is gnome-shell-extensions The package, which contains the default GNOME Shell extension, you can install it by clicking this button or using the following command:

sudo apt install gnome-shell-extensions

After installation, restart Gnome Shell (in the default X11 session, restart GNOME Shell by pressing Alt + F2, Enter r then press Enter Key; if you have switched to Wayland, you need to log out and log in again), then enable User themes Use the Gnome Tweaks application extension.
I know that many users want to use the dark GNOME Shell theme, even with the default (hybrid) Yaru theme. Therefore, if you are one of them, you can now change the GNOME Shell theme to Yaru Dark by opening the Tweaks application (if enabled User themes Extension, close and reopen Tweaks), click Appearance In the left sidebar, then change Shell Topic from Default to Yaru-dark.

2. Customize Ubuntu Dock

Ubuntu 20.04 Dock settings

By default, the dock displayed on the left side of the desktop is used to display running applications and fixed application icons, which can be configured in the following ways Settings -> Appearance. Here, you can choose to set it to automatically hide, change its icon size and its position on the screen (left, right or bottom).
More customization options of Ubuntu Dock are available through the Dconf editor. You can install these options by clicking this button or using the commands below it:

sudo apt install dconf-editor

Ubuntu 20.04 dconf editor docking settings

Using the Dconf editor, go to org -> gnome -> shell -> extensions -> dash-to-dock, Then you can enable the dock icon (settings click-action to minimize), change its background opacity, set the hidden delay, change the smart mode from the default “all windows” to focused window or only maximize the window, change the style and color of the running indicator (dot), hide the installed volume ( For example, USB drive) on the dock, display the trash can on the dock, etc.
If you want to replace the Ubuntu Dock with other tools (such as Plank), please see the list of ways to get rid of the Ubuntu Dock here.

3. Use some GNOME Shell extensions to enhance the Ubuntu 20.04 desktop

GNOME Shell can be extended with the help of extensions. There are thousands of extensions to install, you can find them in the following locations https://extensions.gnome.org/
In order to be able to install GNOME Shell extensions via the GNOME Shell Extensions website, you need to install the package from the repository-click this button or use the following command to install it:

sudo apt install chrome-gnome-shell

Next, you need to install the web browser extension: Firefox browser Either Google Chrome/Chrome.
Now to install the GNOME Shell extension, go to https://extensions.gnome.org/ In a web browser that has the above extensions installed, search for the extension you want to install, and click on its page OFF Switch in the upper right corner of the page to rotate it ON. A pop-up window will ask if you want to install the extension-click Install The extension will be installed on your system.
You can visit the following URLs to update installed extensions, delete or disable extensions, and access their settings: https://extensions.gnome.org/local/. You can also use the Tweaks app to enable/disable extensions and access their settings.

4. After enabling GNOME night light, automatically change the Shell/GTK theme to the dark variant

GNOME Shell Nigh Light change theme

The GNOME night light function is used to make your monitor switch to a warmer color at night to help you sleep better and prevent eye fatigue.
This feature can be enabled from Settings -> Display -> Night Light. Here, you can choose to run it automatically according to sunset/sunrise time, or enable it according to manual schedule, and you can also control the color temperature.
If you want to extend the “Night Light” feature to automatically switch to the dark variants of GTK and GNOME Shell themes when the “Night Light” starts, you can use several small GNOME Shell extensions to achieve. When the night light is off, the schedule set by you or you Settings, The theme will switch back to the regular GTK/Shell theme variant.
To have this feature, please follow the instructions in step 3 above to install the theme from extensions.gnome.org and install the following 2 GNOME Shell extensions (Night Theme Switcher is used to change GTK themes when Night Light is turned on, and Night Shell Switcher is used To change the GNOME Shell theme according to the night light schedule):

All you need to do is to install these two extensions and enable GNOME Night Light, and then the theme will be automatically switched according to the Night Light schedule.
If you want to use a different GTK3 theme in some applications (for example let Night Light change the GTK3 theme to dark, but force some applications to use a light theme), please refer to this article.

5. Android users: Use GSConnect to integrate the phone with the Ubuntu 20.04 GNOME Shell desktop

GSConnect

If you use Android, you can use GSConnect to integrate your phone with the Ubuntu (GNOME) desktop.
GSConnect is a complete implementation of KDE Connect, especially for GNOME Shell. You can receive notifications from your Android phone on your desktop (and vice versa), reply to messages received on Android from your desktop, easily share files, and remotely console certain aspects of your phone from your Android phone.You also need to install KDE Connect on your Android phone from: Google Play Either F-robot.
By the way, I linked to the GSConnect GNOME Shell extension website, so you install the extension from there, not from the Ubuntu repository. This is because although GSConnect can be found in the Ubuntu 20.04 repository, it is an old version.

6. Quick application launcher with additional functions

Although the GNOME Shell built-in application launcher runs fast in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, I personally still prefer to use the quick launcher. Not only because it is fast, but also because the plug-in can accomplish many things.
There are many quick launchers for Ubuntu, but in this article, I only list one of them, and I find it can meet most needs.Ulauncher quick application launcherUlanche Is a Python 3 / GTK + 3 application launcher, with fuzzy search, custom color themes, file system integration (so you can use it to browse files on the system), and support plugins.
Ulauncher can use more than 70 extensions for various purposes, such as searching and launching VirtualBox computers, using Google Translate for translation, converting between various units of measurement, and integrating with clipboard managers (such as GPaste or CopyQ) , With password managers (such as pass or Bitwarden, kill processes, search and insert emoji, etc.).
After installing and running, use to activate Ulauncher Ctrl + Space By default, you can start typing what you are looking for.

You need to install it separately by visiting the Ulauncher extension Extended site Then paste the extension URL into Ulauncher preferences (after clicking “Add Extension”).

7. Fix Qt5 application style under GNOME Shell in Ubuntu 20.04

The Qt5 application looks inappropriate on Ubuntu 20.04 (it’s ugly, I’ve already said it) and doesn’t respect GTK+ themes.
There is a way to make them look as close as possible to the default Ubuntu 20.04 Yaru theme. No, not by using the old export QT_QPA_PLATFORMTHEME=gtk2 Adjustments that lead to Qt5 applications Slow to start On a fresh Ubuntu installation, starting with Ubuntu 19.10 (which still happens on Ubuntu 20.04), but using Kvantum.
Kvantum is Qt’s SVG-based theme engine. Thanks to Kvantum’s built-in theme KvYaru, it can be used on GNOME to style Qt5 applications to make them look more native, which looks very similar to the default Ubuntu 20.04 theme Yaru, which is only available for native apps ( DEB/build from source); snap and flatpak applications will continue to be the same as before.
This is how the two Qt5 applications, VLC and Qbittorrent, look like on Ubuntu 20.04 by default:Qt5 apps are ugly on Ubuntu 20.04

This is how they looked after using Kvantum with the KvYaru theme:Qt5 application Kvantum kvyaru Ubuntu 20.04

Install Kvantum Qt5 style and Kvantum theme pack by clicking this button or using the command below it:

sudo apt install qt5-style-kvantum qt5-style-kvantum-themes

Next, open ~/.profile Archive with Gedit:

gedit ~/.profile

At the bottom of this file, add a new line:

export QT_STYLE_OVERRIDE=kvantum

Save the file and open Kvantum from the application menu. Click on Change/Delete ThemeAnd select KvYaru As a topic for Qt5 applications:Kvantum kvYaru style for Qt5 applicationsNow you need to log out and log in again. Open some Qt5 applications and it should… no longer ugly. You may also like: How to add display desktop icons to Ubuntu Dock / Add Dash to Dock

Enable flatpak and add Flathub repository

Flatpak It is a tool for building and distributing desktop applications on Linux in a sandbox environment (isolated from the rest of the system). The Flatpak package is built to be distribution- and desktop-independent and has all the dependencies required, which makes it larger than the local package (but after the runtime is installed-it provides the basic dependencies used by some applications Relationship-the size is greatly reduced), but it also means that it can run on systems where there are no application dependencies.Flathub Is the official Flatpak repository, which contains hundreds of constantly updated applications.
For Ubuntu 20.04, Canonical installed Snap Store by default instead of standard GNOME software applications (Snap Store is a branch of GNOME Software, but does not support Flatpak), making it more difficult to use Flatpak packages to support Snap. . Nevertheless, it is still possible to install the Flatpak application on Ubuntu 20.04 and update it with GNOME software.GNOME software flatpak flathub Ubuntu 20.04

To install Flatpak and the GNOME software Flatpak plugin (this will also install the GNOME software, and thanks to this plugin, you will be able to update the Flatpak application with GNOME software), use this button or the following command:

sudo apt install flatpak gnome-software-plugin-flatpak

Then add the Flathub repository:

flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo

For Flatpak to operate normally, the system needs to be restarted.
After that, you will be able to use “Software” (see the pre-installed “Ubuntu Software” (i.e. Snap Store) and “Software” (i.e. GNOME software application) in the application menu) to search, install and update the Flatpak application .
It is worth noting that using “software” (not “Ubuntu software”), you can also install native (DEB) packages as well as Snap packages, not just Flatpak applications. In addition, when searching for packages, Flatpak is usually found at the bottom of the list.

Games (Steam, Lutris and GameMode)

For games, most users may want to install Steam and Lutris.steam It can be installed from the Ubuntu 20.04 repository by clicking this button or the following command:

sudo apt install steam-installer

Lutris It is an open source game platform that can be used to play Steam, GOG, Battle.net, Origin, Uplay games, etc. It makes it easy to add Wine versions, enable DXVK, etc., so that you can play Microsoft Windows games on Linux.Lutris Ubuntu 20.04

Lutris is not in the Ubuntu repository, but you can install it from its official PPA:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:lutris-team/lutris

sudo apt install lutris

Lutris also has some requirements:

  • If you have Nvidia graphics, you need to install the proprietary driver using the “Other Drivers” tool in the Ubuntu application menu.
  • To use DXVK, you need to install the Vulkan library:
    • For AMD graphics cards:
sudo apt install mesa-vulkan-drivers mesa-vulkan-drivers:i386
    • For Nvidia graphics:
sudo apt install libvulkan1 libvulkan1:i386

Installing Lutris will also install Wine (stable, from the Ubuntu repository), so we have solved it in one go. Lutris also comes with its own bundled Wine version, but if you want to install Wine Staging or Development version on Ubuntu 20.04, please check this link.
If you need a guide to using Lutris, please check this article.
In Ubuntu 20.04, Feral Interactive Game mode It is installed by default. This is a Linux daemon/library that allows the game to request a set of optimizations to be temporarily applied to the host operating system and/or game process.
It optimizes the CPU regulator, I/O priority, process accuracy, kernel scheduler, disables the screen saver, changes the GPU performance mode and more.
No configuration is required to use GameMode in Lutris. As long as GameMode is provided on the system, Lutris will enable GameMode for all games by default.
To use Steam, you need to edit the game’s launch options to use:

gamemoderun %command%

Other adjustments

1. Install additional codecs, support archive formats, etc.

Click this button or the command below to install additional codecs, Java (OpenJRE 11), Microsoft Web fonts, support for additional archive formats (rar, 7zip), enable playback of encrypted DVDs, etc.

sudo apt install openjdk-11-jre unrar rar p7zip-full ubuntu-restricted-extras libdvd-pkg

When performing this operation from the terminal, when asked to accept the Microsoft Web font license, press TAB Choose Yes,then press Enter.
To enable encrypted DVD playback, you also need to run the following command:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure libdvd-pkg

Then choose Yes When asked if the package should be downloaded, built and installed libdvdcss2.

2. Enable backup

Deja Dup backup

After installing Ubuntu 20.04, backups should be listed among all important things to do. You may not like what you adjust after a fresh Ubuntu installation, and the backup allows you to easily restore the changes you made, just in case you don’t know what you did or how to do it. Ubuntu comes with Deja Dup (in It is called “Backup” in the application menu)) to create and restore backups. However, unless you enable it, no backup will be created.
You can store the backup to a local folder, network location or Google Drive. To save the backup to Google Drive, you need to enter your Google username and password in Online Accounts (You will be Settings), and then select Google Drive as the storage location in the “Backup” app.
If Deja Dup backup tool does not suit your needs, you can install and set it up Borg backup, This is a powerful command line for deduplication and compression of duplicate data. Use the button below or the following command to install it:

sudo apt install borgbackup

If you want to use GUI for BorgBackup, I suggest you check Vorta.
You can also choose to install Time shift, A popular backup (included with Linux Mint by default) and a system restore utility that periodically captures system snapshots. You can restore these snapshots later to undo system changes. Snapshots are incremental snapshots and can be created using rsync or BTRFS snapshots using the BTRFS tool (only for BTRFS file systems).
Use this button or the following command to install TimeShift:

sudo apt install timeshift

3. Laptop users: Use TLP (and TLP’s optional GUI) to extend laptop battery life

TLP It is an advanced power management tool for Linux. The command line tool comes with a default configuration optimized for battery saving, so it is very easy to use-just install TLP and you can omit it.
TLP is highly customizable, so if you want to change some of its settings, you can also do this (by editing the TLP configuration file).
TLP automatically detects whether your laptop is running on battery or AC power and applies settings (change CPU frequency scaling and regulator, set WiFi power saving mode, enable or disable integrated radio, set disk APM and disk rotation timeout, etc.). ) To optimize the performance of the laptop (when using AC power) or to save battery (when using battery).
Use this button or the following command to install TLP:

sudo apt install tlp tlp-rdw

For ThinkPads, you also need to install several additional packages, which can be installed again by clicking this button or the command following it:

sudo apt install tp-smapi-dkms acpi-call-dkms

TLP starts automatically at startup. To prevent the system from restarting, you can use the following methods to start it immediately after installation:

sudo tlp start

The main things to do after taking full advantage of Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

There is also a GUI for TLP that can be used to configure it, called Special treasure. You can download the TLPUI DEB package from Linux Uprising Apps PPA:

4. Disable unattended upgrades

Unattended upgrade Ubuntu 20.04

of unattended-upgrades The package is installed by default on Ubuntu 20.04. After activation, unattended-upgrades Install the latest security (and other) updates automatically.
Although this is a nice feature, some users may not like this updated Microsoft Windows behavior without user input. Especially when you want to shut down or reboot the system in a hurry and can’t do so, because an upgrade is in progress. And, if you’re in the system may damage the system or at least cause the infamous “E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock“Or”E: dpkg was interruptederror.
To avoid all these situations, you can disable unattended-upgrades Therefore your system will not automatically install updates.
It is worth noting that it is better to disable unattended upgrades rather than removing packages, as packages may be pulled as dependencies and installed later. To disable unattended upgrades, run:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure unattended-upgrades

When asked whether Ubuntu should Automatically download and install stable updates, Press TAB Choose No,then press Enter, And you are done.

5. Bash history: display the time stamp (date/time) when each command was executed

Hit history

Bash keeps a history of the commands you type, which can be accessed by typing the following history In a terminal. By default, you will notice that previously run commands do not have a timestamp, and I find it useful to use timestamps in certain situations, such as remembering commands that were run within a certain time range to undo various operations, etc.
If you want to enable timestamps for Bash history, please turn on ~/.bashrc Use Gedit:

gedit ~/.bashrc

And add at the bottom of the file (yes, there is a space after %T and before the closing quotation mark):

HISTTIMEFORMAT="%F %T "

Then save the file and source ~/.bashrc use:

source ~/.bashrc

Bash will now reserve a timestamp for each command you run from now on. Previously run commands will have a timestamp of the time this feature was enabled (so all previously run commands will have the same timestamp).
To try, run some commands and then run history In a terminal.
To customize the timestamp format, please refer to this article in LinuxUprising.

6. Add Bash hints with Starship

Starship bash zsh fish prompt

Starship is the smallest, very fast (written in Rust) shell prompt for Bash, Fish, and Zsh (but here, I assume you are using the Ubuntu 20.04 default, which is Bash) and only display additional information when needed. Look at it Home page See its actual effect.
See also my previous article: “Starship” is the smallest and fast Shell prompt written in Rust.
To install it, download the binary file from the following location GitHub (starship-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu.tar.gz), unzip the archive, and then in the folder where you unzipped the Starship binary file, run the following command (install it to /usr/local/bin):

sudo install starship /usr/local/bin

You also need to install Powerline fonts, such as Fira Code, which is available in the Ubuntu repository and can be installed using:

sudo apt install fonts-firacode

Now, by opening ~/.bashrc Use Gedit:

gedit ~/.bashrc

And add the following line at the end of the file:

eval "$(starship init bash)"

Finally, the source ~/.bashrc So the changes will be applied to your current terminal:

source ~/.bashrc

If you want to configure Starship, please refer to This page.

Additional applications

Ubuntu 20.04 applications

Ubuntu comes with pre-installed applications for basic content. You will find the Firefox web browser, text editor (Gedit), music player (Rhythmbox), video player (Totem), etc. But not everyone uses them, or not only these. Below I will list some of the most popular applications and links to install them from snap, flatpak and DEB packages (the latter can be directly in the repository or Found on the application’s website)). It is worth noting that for some applications, Ubuntu Software will list only the snapshot version even if there is a native software package (DEB) available in the repository. In my case, this is the case with GIMP.
Snap and Flatpak packages use sandbox packaging and provide higher security, but they are also larger and may occasionally malfunction due to the nature of their sandbox packaging. Install the required software packages. For snaps (snapshot links) and DEB packages (apt links) that already exist in the Ubuntu repository, the link below should use the application you clicked to open the Ubuntu Software app and prepare to install it. From there, click the install button to install. Apt links may also open in a small dialog pop-up window, depending on what you selected when you first opened such a link. For the Flatpak application, the Flathub application page will open. You need to enable flatpak and Flathub to install such apps (for instructions, see “Enable flatpak and add Flathub repository” above).

1. Choose your web browser

By default, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) is installed with the Firefox web browser, but Linux can also use many other web browsers. If you like Chromium-based web browsers, you can use many browsers, including:

If you want to use the Chromium browser with hardware acceleration (VAAPI) enabled, you can use PPA. In addition, the package is a native DEB, not a snapshot (the Chromium browser of Ubuntu 20.04 is only available as a snapshot package, even if installed with apt).

2. Cloud storage

Nowadays, almost everyone is using some cloud storage services, and you may want to have files available soon after installing Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). Below, you will find one-click installation buttons for cloud storage clients (such as Dropbox or Nextcloud) available in the Ubuntu repositories, options to download clients for certain services, and alternatives without official solutions.

  • Google Drive:

Google does not have an official Linux client, but it is very easy to enable access to Google Drive files on GNOME. turn on Settings, go with Online Accounts And add your Google account here. Once this is done, you can use Google Drive files from the “Files (Nautilus)” application.
By adding your Google account to your online account, you can also integrate Google with other GNOME applications for additional benefits, such as GNOME calendar will be synchronized with your Google calendar, you can use a backup (Deja Dup) Backup to Google Drive etc.
You can even use this feature in desktop environments other than GNOME, such as Xfce or MATE desktop.

  • One drive:

There is no official Microsoft OneDrive client for Linux, and adding a Microsoft account in Online Accounts will not mount OneDrive files on Ubuntu. However, there are some third-party solutions, the following two both support personal and corporate/Office 365 accounts.
If you want to mount Microsoft OneDrive on Linux, you can mount it using Rclone.
Installing OneDrive on Linux means you can access the files immediately without downloading the files until the files are accessed or copied to a local disc. But this also means that if your Internet is disconnected, they will not be available. So, if you want, you can use a fork of OneDrive Free Client, a command line tool that keeps OneDrive files in sync with folders on your Linux computer.

  • synchronizing:

This is a free proprietary tool for managing Google Drive and OneDrive. It comes with a GUI (integrated with a file manager), Linux lacks OneDrive and Google Drive at the same time, and has more features for these two services in the official synchronization client, and even more. Download InSync (DEB)
More (click the link to install the package from the Ubuntu repository, minus Mega, which needs to be downloaded separately):

  • Nextcloud (integrated with Nautilus)
  • ownCloud
  • Dropbox (integrated with Nautilus)
  • Mega

3. Communication

Do you use Slack, Discord, Skype, Telegram, Team or Pidgin? Click the link below to install/download (if available, you will find flatpak, snap, apt packages and official downloads):

4. Video player:

  • VLC: Install flatpak |Install Snap|Install DEB
  • SMPlayer: Installation (DEB)
  • mpv: install (DEB; the snapshot version is quite old)

5. Audio player:

6. Graphic editor:

7. Code editor:

What about you It is recommended that you do some important things after installing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa.

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